Chesterfield County was named for the British statesman Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (1694-1773) or as some suggests Chesterfield County, Virginia.1 The County Courthouse is located in the town of Chesterfield; the county seat.
The oldest town in the county is the town of Cheraw, founded and settled in 1748.
The county was settled by Welsh settlers from Pennsylvania and Delaware that moved into this region in the mid-eighteenth century, and they were later joined by Scotch-Irish and English.
During the Civil War, General Sherman's troops passed through this area burning the Courthouse in Chesterfield and destroying most pre-civil war records.
Parent County/Boundary Changes2
- 1785 - Thirty-three counties were created within existing South Carolina Districts. Chesterfield was created within Cheraws District.
- 1800 - Chesterfield was re-christened a district and Cheraws District was abolished.
- 1868 - Chesterfield and all other districts became counties.
The County is divided into 9 distinct townships:3
- Alligator = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Cheraw = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Cole Hill = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Court House / Courthouse = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Jefferson = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Mount Croghan = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Old Store / Pageland = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Steerpen = 1870-Census, 1880-Census
- Pee Dee = Is listed on the Map below but it is not listed on this website-http://rootsweb.ancestry.com/~scoconee/townships.html
Current population of the County is 46,103 (2012).5
 "Chesterfield County, South Carolina (http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/chesterfield_county_sc.html : accessed 12 December 2013).
 Chesterfield County Genealogical Society, "Chesterfield County Township Map," Chesterfield District Chronicle, Fall 2002, Newsletter , Chesterfield County Genealogical Society (https://www.facebook.com/groups/131108983604237/), Back Cover.